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EUROPEAN NETWORK OF MIGRANT WOMEN (ENOMW) is the only Europe-wide feminist umbrella organisation that directly represents the opinion of migrant & refugee women & girls at the European and International level. Our diverse membership includes the women of Arab, African, Asian, Latin American and Eastern European descent and extends to over 40 migrant women grass-root and advocacy groups in 20 European countries.



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30 March 2020

In the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic and the measures taken by states to prevent its spread, European Network of Migrant Women wishes to offer our analysis of some of the aspects of this crisis, from a global feminist perspective. 



At the onset of the epidemic eruption, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDPC) published a set of measures to “help fight COVID-19”. Practically none of them could be applied in the accommodations where most refugees are housed currently.   Frequent hand disinfection – a perfectly simple step is impossible to implement in refugee facilities, as most of them do not have enough clean water, bathrooms or soap. The ECDPC advises “remaining at home or in a designated setting, in a single, dedicated, adequately ventilated room and preferably using a dedicated toilet“, “avoiding crowds”, “social distancing”, all of which is impossible to maintain as refugees are mostly crammed into rooms above the capacity they can accommodate. “Have enough groceries for 2-4 weeks” is also impossible for refugees who have no income to stock such supplies, no place to buy them and no space to store them. Neither can they “activate their social networks” who might be dead, disappeared or in another country. 

Several civil society initiatives and the LIBE Committee of the European Parliament,  have already highlighted the “refugee and migrants dimension” of the pandemic. However, as bad as it is for any refugee in such situations, for girls and women – be it those trapped at the Greek-Turkish border, the ‘direct provision’ in Ireland, or the  ‘hot-spots’ in Italy – it is objectively worse than most of us can imagine. Already not having safe, sex-segregated spaces that would allow the women to take care of their basic needs away from the male gaze and harassment, without privacy to change their menstrual pads, breastfeed their babies or take showers – already subjected to ongoing sexual violence from men, including gang rape and forced marriage, the females in the camps will also have to take the brunt of caring for the sick, mitigating the risk of infections and mediating new conflicts and male violence inevitably erupting in the midst of the crisis. 



“Reports of abandoned older persons in care homes or of dead corpses found in nursing homes are alarming. This is unacceptable,” said Rosa Kornfeld-Matte, UN Independent Expert on the enjoyment of all human rights by older persons. By the reports she meant those coming from Europe. 

We have all heard  by now that “it is ONLY  the elderly who are most at risk“, “JUST for those over 70 the fatal outcome is high”, so many died, “BUT most of them were old”.  

All these statements have exposed a disturbing, however unsurprising,  disregard towards the elderly. In the ageing, yet, youth fixated society that Europe has become, where everything from media to feminist movement glamorises ‘the young’, and where the young persons themselves have been targeted by liberal doctrines of free choice and individualistic empowerment, in this pandemic the elderly have come to symbolise the “unwanted” at best and “disposable” at worst. While some initiatives have been set up, such as the shopping hours and delivery of food-packs for old and vulnerable persons, those have been “extra” measures in the context of “strongest to survive”. This context means the fit, the mobile and the rich doing panic-shopping, as well as irresponsibly going out, still, reassured by the message “it is ONLY  the elderly who will be killed by Covid-19“. 

“Elderly” is an abstract category though, especially in the European Union that counts as “young” anyone under 35 y.o. Women live longer than men, at least in Europe, representing 55% of people aged 60+, 64% of the 80+ group and 82% of centenarians. These women may have outlived men, but they are also among the poorest, with chronic health conditions and often live alone, having cared for their now deceased husbands or families. Can we then assume that it is these women who must be left to die when doctors have to prioritise patients with the best chance of survival or those who have families who can take care of them once they leave the ICU ?




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Women must not pay the price for COVID-19: Putting equality between women and men at the heart of the response to COVID-19 across Europe

see statement on European Women’s Lobby website

The COVID-19 crisis is disproportionately impacting women and girls who are made vulnerable by our patriarchal and neoliberal capitalist system: a system that is not working for people or the planet, and most definitely not working for women and girls. In these immensely difficult times for all people and societies in Europe and globally, the EU and its Member States must show political leadership and urgently ensure that gender-sensitive responses are implemented so that the price of these current crises is not paid by women, most especially the most marginalised.

On 5 March, the European Commission launched its strategy: “A Union of equality: Gender Equality Strategy 2020-2025” setting out the key priorities to put equality between women and men back at the heart of the EU and all EU policies. This new Strategy recognises the need to integrate a gender perspective in all EU policies and major initiatives. Its effective implementation is instrumental in ensuring that the application and resourcing of special measures are targeted at women and girls who are exposed to heightened situations of vulnerability in this current global context.

As individuals, communities and families are isolated, and the delivery of essential services are limited by the current pandemic, many women and girls are even further exposed to male violence. Due to lockdown measures, victims of intimate partner violence are confined at home with their abusers, with less possibilities of seeking help without further putting their lives at risk.

We have been hearing from our Members – feminist and women’s organisations throughout Europe – of the specific impact on women and girls and especially:

    • Women who continue to care and provide for their own families, women who are the sole caretaker of their household, and those of others in situations of isolation, and economic insecurity;
    • Women who are at risk or currently experiencing poverty, social exclusion or homelessness;
    • Women who are at risk of male violence at home, or are victims of sexual exploitation and trafficking;
    • Refugee and women who are seeking asylum from precarious migration tension, especially those who are currently being turned away from facilities and are forced in life-threatening situations on the street;
    • Women who are already experiencing multiple discrimination in our societies such as Roma women, migrant women, women with precarious employment;
    • Women with disabilities and older women who have limited or no access to ongoing and quality services and/or are living in care facilities where living in self-isolation is extremely challenging;
    • Women with mental health issues such as anxiety, depression are exacerbated in this current pandemic.

As women make up the majority of those currently working in hospitals, providing essential care and cleaning services, or continue to work in retail, hospitality and education contexts that enable the rest of the community to live in self-isolation, we are reminded about how invaluable women’s care work is to the wellbeing and functioning of our societies and planet. The gaps in care provisions exposed by this crisis demonstrate once again the urgency of moving towards a socio-economic model that recognises women’s invaluable contributions to society and places care at the centre, where all women and men have equal, flexible options to balance their work and care responsibilities, and live a dignified life.

As feminists, we understand that women and girls will bear the burden of this situation and need to ensure that there is recognition for that throughout Europe’s response which must not leave any woman or man, girl or boy behind.

We, at EWL, stand in solidarity with everyone impacted by the crisis and we will continue to demand more accountability from our leaders to build responses based on care, compassion, justice and equality for women and girls.


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Download statement in FR / ES / PT / EL / EN
Brussels, 5 March 2020
We, the European Network of Migrant Women (ENoMW), are alerted by the ongoing situation in the Greek-Turkish border, following Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s decision to open its borders and by the subsequent steps taken by the Greek government to prevent displaced people from entering its territory, accompanied by the use of military force to fortify its borders.
We call on the Greek government to respect European asylum law and international humanitarian law and put an end to the push-backs of displaced people to their countries and regions of origin, which violates the core principle of the 1951 Refugee Convention and International Human Rights Law, as well as to uphold legal access and procedures to new arrivals. Additionally, we call on the Greek authorities to refrain from the use of excessive and disproportionate force against the displaced persons, many of whom are women and children,  stranded at the Greek-Turkish border. 
We urge the European Union to produce an urgent response, based on equal sharing of burden and responsibilities among the EU Member States, in line with the Refugee Convention and international obligations. We call on the European Union to sustain a human-rights based migration policy and to safeguard both international protection and solidarity between the Member States.
We are extremely concerned with the Commission’s pledge to provide additional support to the Member States through protection of European external borders, as we believe that a human-rights based approach should be undertaken to resolve the situation without further harming the livelihoods of displaced persons. The European Commission has the legal and moral obligation to uphold Directive 2013/32/EU, commonly known as the Asylum Procedures Directive.
ENoMW also calls on the European Commission, the Member States involved and international organisations to act and address the humanitarian needs of displaced women and girls trapped at  the Greek-Turkish border. The overcrowding in the latter has amounted to dangerous conditions in which women and girls find themselves without access to assistance, essential resources including shelter, food, water, sanitation and medical care, in an environment without protection from men’s sexual and physical violence. 


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On 16 January 2020 European Network of Migrant Women (ENoMW), supported by almost 100 civil society organisations, including international and national platforms and umbrella associations, sent a letter addressed to the European Commission’s Vice-President Margaritis Schinas and Commissioner for Home Affairs Ylva Johansson.

In this letter we asked the European Commission to extend the mandate of the EU Anti-Trafficking Coordinator (ATC), Dr Myria Vassiliadou, due to come to an end on 29 February 2020.

As an umbrella organisation representing the persons directly and disproportionally affected by the gendered crime of trafficking in Europe, we are particularly concerned with the future of the quality of work carried by the office of the EU Anti-Trafficking Coordinator –  including transparency, the rule of law, solidarity, victim-centered appraoch, the principles of equality between women and men and gender mainstreaming – all the aspects of the EU anti-trafficking work that we are pleased to have witnessed met and reinforced under the mandate of the current ATC Dr Myria Vassiliadou.



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The 6th of February is a well-known date for NGOs, CSOs and activists committed to end Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). As the international day against FGM will highlight existing projects and good practises to end it, it is also a great moment to focus on the unknown – or less known – social norms aimed at controlling women’s bodies. 

Growing up, virginity ​and hymen were the topi​cs of conversations with my fellow girl friends. Virginity was, for us, a key to a successful, blessed, honorific and socially well-approved marriage. ​As part of our social existence​, virginity and marriage are tied to each other. Marriage is the main objective and greatest achievement for young girls to be accepted and treated as a respected woman within their families and at a larger scale, their communities. Several ways to protect virginity and to ensure that young girls will one day become wives, exist, such as virginity testing or the ​tasfih. 

I remember being a young and naive teenager, coming back from her summer holidays in Algeria and excited to meet with my friends. As we gathered after weeks of not talking to each other (no smartphones back then!), one of them was talking to us about her new status. She was now officially ​marbouta, a​ future pure wife. She talked about it and bragged about it. I was angry, why on earth wasn’t I purified for my future?! Quickly after coming home, I wanted to confront my mother, and double-check with her in case we missed a very ​very ​important activity for me. I was straightforward: “Mama, why am I not ​marbouta​?”. I will never forget my mother’s face as her breath stopped, suddenly turned to face me and yelled at me “don’t you ever mention this and if someone talks to you about this again you come to me”.


Without knowing it, we were talking about ​tasfih 


In several communities virginity and “social honour” are linked. And to protect this so-called honour, women are facing social pressure from families, communities and even from the government, to avoid sexual intercourses outside marriage. Hymen is the living symbol of a soon-to-be-woman’s purity and might be checked by family members before the wedding night (virginity certificate) or after the wedding night with the traditional “dance with the bleeding sheet” and in certain case​s if the husband expresses reservations regarding his wife’s “purity”. And ​tasfih/rbat ​is a traditional practice for young girls that still exists in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia: “the closed vagina”.

Tasfih[1] is d​one on young girls before puberty and is a spiritual practise: Girls are taken to a ​qabla (traditional midwife) and must repeat seven times “​wald el nas khet wa ana haït​” which can be translated as “People’s son is a string and I’m a wall”. This sentence is highly sexualised and symbolises the incapacity for the new ​marbouta (knotted) – msakra (closed) ​girl to have sexual intercourses outside of marriage. It can only be undone before the wedding and by saying “​wald el nas haït wa an khet” meaning “People’s son is a wall and I’m a string”.



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30 January 2020, Vienna

European Network of Migrant Women took part in anther round of expert consultation on the General Recommendation Article 6 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), convened by Vienna by the CEDAW Commission, United Nations Office for High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes (UNODC), Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and the Austrian government. Together with gthe experts from UN Agencies and Civil society organisations we discussed the situation of Trafficking in Women and Girls in the Eastern-European region and provided our recommendations to the the General Recommendations on the Trafficking in Women and Girls in the Context of Global Migration that the CEDAW Committee is set to produce by the end of 2020.